# Student Blog: Introducing Bipartite Graphs in Alga

Posted on *May 29, 2019* by *Vasily Alferov* (permalink)

I am a student at Summer of Haskell this year and I am very thankful to authors of this site who provided me this platform to have a blog about GSoC. This is an introduction post about my project. I am planning to write regular posts on my progress and when I find something interesting.

The idea of the project was on the ideas list published earlier. Two of us were accepted for this project, the other one being Adithya Kumar and who will be doing the work described on the ideas list. He told me his GSoC blog will probably be here.

My task is to introduce bipartite graphs to Alga and that is what I am going to tell you about now.

## Algebraic graphs

There are three common ways to represent graphs in computing:

- Adjacency matrix
- Adjacency lists
- Edge lists.

All three of them have their advantages and disadvantages. The most commonly used is the adjacency lists approach: that is storing a list of neighbors for each vertex. In fact, I can think of only one common algorithm for which this approach is not perfect: it is Kruskal’s algorithm for finding the minimum spanning tree.

However, the problem is that feeding graphs formed this way to algorithms is
not always safe. For example, if the algorithm is designed for bidirectional
graphs, it may rely on the fact that if some vertex `u`

is in the list of
neighbors of some another vertex `v`

then `v`

is in the list of neighbors of
`u`

.

A traditional solution for functional programming would be to guarantee the
consistency of input data for the algorithm by taking a representation of the
graph that would not allow a wrong graph to be passed. That’s what we call
*type safety*.

Alga is a library that provides such a safe representation with a beautiful algebraic interpretation. It also has a nice set of algorithms out of the box. You can find the paper on Alga by its author here, I’m just going to provide some basics.

Consider the following definition for the graph data type:

```
data Graph a = Empty
| Vertex a
| Overlay (Graph a) (Graph a)
| Connect (Graph a) (Graph a)
```

The constructors mean the following:

`Empty`

constructs an empty graph.`Vertex v`

constructs a graph of single vertex labeled`v`

.`Overlay g h`

constructs a graph with sets of vertices and edges united from graphs`g`

and`h`

.`Connect g h`

does the same as`Overlay`

and also connects all vertices of`g`

to all vertices of`h`

.

One can easily construct a `Graph`

of linear size having a list of edges of the
desired graph. In fact, this approach may even save memory for dense graphs
comparing to adjacency lists. And this approach is surely *type safe* in the
sense described above. Comparing to adjacency lists, there is no problem with
an edge not present in the list of neighbours of another vertex. Another
possible problem with adjacency lists not present here is that an edge might
lead to a vertex with no associated adjacency list.

Why algebraic? Well, if we write down simple laws for these graphs we will see
that laws for `Connect`

and `Overlay`

operations are very similar to those for
multiplication and addition in a semiring, respectively.

This was just a brief description of Alga. There are many other parts not
covered here. One example is that `Graph`

might also be provided as a type
class rather than a data type. This approach is much more flexible.

## Bipartite graphs

An important part of Alga is providing different type-safe representations for different kinds of graph. For example, one for edge-labeled graphs was introduced last year.

Another option is to add a representation that *restricts* the set of possible
graphs. One example from the ideas list is to represent only acyclic directed
graphs. This is what Adithya will be doing. And my task for the first
evaluation period is to provide bipartite graphs.

We often meet bipartite graphs in real world: connections between entities of different kinds are common. For example, graph of clients and backends they use is bipartite. Another example I can think of is about content recommendation systems: graph of users and films or songs they like is bipartite, too.

There are many ideas on how to do so. For example, in my proposal I suggested an approach that seems to match Alga’s design:

```
data Bigraph a b = Empty
| LeftVertex a
| RightVertex b
| Overlay (Bigraph a b) (Bigraph a b)
| Connect (Bigraph a b) (Bigraph a b)
```

Here, `Connect`

only connects left vertices to the right. As my mentor Andrey
figured, there is an interesting addition to the laws:
`(LeftVertex u) * (LeftVertex v) = (LeftVertex u) + (LeftVertex v)`

. Of course,
the same holds for the right vertices.

By now, we agreed that first, I will focus on implementing adjacency maps for bipartite graphs (hey, didn’t I mention that Alga uses adjacency maps on the inside?). It doesn’t make much sense to make a separate algebraic representation, but I may do it if I find something interesting in it.

Now, the first task is to implement the conversion function, which I’m going to start right now. This implementation will simply ignore the edges between vertices of the same part.

```
fromGraph :: Graph (Either a b) -> Bipartite.AdjacencyMap a b
= undefined fromGraph
```

With this stub, my summer-long dive into Haskell begins!

# Older posts

*May 14, 2023*- Summer of Haskell 2023 Project Selections*February 1, 2022*- Google Summer of Code in 2022*September 23, 2021*- Haskell.org GSoC results for 2021*October 12, 2020*- Haskell.org GSoC results for 2020*January 12, 2020*- Call for Ideas for 2020*January 10, 2020*- Haskell.org GSoC results for 2019*August 26, 2019*- Student Blog: Results for Bipartite Graphs Project*July 26, 2019*- Student Blog: Testing Bipartiteness with Monad Transformers*May 29, 2019*- Student Blog: Introducing Bipartite Graphs in Alga*February 26, 2019*- Haskell.Org Participating in GSoC 2019*December 28, 2018*- Call for Ideas for 2019*September 1, 2018*- Haskell.org GSoC results for 2018*April 23, 2018*- Accepted projects for 2018*March 14, 2018*- Student Applications are now open*December 25, 2017*- Call for Ideas for 2018*September 15, 2017*- Final results for 2017*August 4, 2017*- Midterm update for 2017*May 24, 2017*- Accepted projects for 2017*April 25, 2017*- Student Applications are now open*April 5, 2017*- Getting ready for Summer of Haskell 2017*February 28, 2017*- Summer of Haskell 2017 Announcement*December 8, 2016*- Summer of Haskell 2016 Wrap-Up

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